Scientific Review of Agent Orange in C-123 Aircraft
VA asked the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academy of Sciences, an independent non-governmental organization, to study possible exposure and increase in adverse health effects in C-123 crew members.
IOM released its report, Post-Vietnam Dioxin Exposure in Agent Orange-Contaminated C-123 Aircraft, Jan. 9, 2015. VA has assembled a group of clinical and other subject matter experts to review and respond to the report.
Scientific review and analysis
VA's Office of Public Health reviewed the following studies and reports in 2011 and 2012, and will continue to review new findings relevant to this issue as they become available.
Air Force sampling reports
- Aircraft Sampling: Westover AFB, MA. Prepared by W.W. Conway, USAF Occupational and Environmental Health Laboratory, Brooks AFB, TX; 1979.
- Memorandum for 645 MedGrp/SGB: Consultative Letter AL/OE-CL-1994-0203, review of Dioxin Sampling results from C-123 Aircraft, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH and Recommendations for Protection of Aircraft restoration Personnel. Prepared by WH Weisman and RC Porter, Armstrong Laboratory, Brooks AFB, TX; 1994.
- Memorandum for HQ AFMC/SGC: Consultative Letter, AL/OE-CL-1997-0053, Cleanup of Contaminated Aircraft, Aerospace Maintenance and Regeneration Center. Prepared by RC Porter, Armstrong Laboratory, Brooks AFB, TX; 1997.
- Dioxin and Herbicide Characterization of UC-123K Aircraft – Phase I. Prepared for Director of Operations, 505 Aircraft Sustainment Squadron and Hazardous Waste Program Manager, 75CEG/CEVC, Hill AFB, UT (prepared by Select Engineering Services, Layton, UT); 2009.
- Buffler PA, Ginevan ME, Mandel JS, Watkins DK. The Air Force health study: an epidemiologic retrospective. Ann Epidemiol 2011; 21:673-87.
- Diliberto JJ, Jackson JA, Birnbaum LS. Comparison of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) disposition following pulmonary, oral, dermal, and parenteral exposures to rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1996; 138:158-68.
- Karch NJ, Watkins DK, Young AL, Ginevan ME. Environmental fate of TCDD and Agent Orange and bioavailability to troops in Vietnam. (4.2 MB, PDF) Organohalogen Compounds 2004; 66:3689-94.
- Keenan RE, Paustenbach DJ, Wenning RJ, Parsons AH. Pathology reevaluation of the Kociba et al. (1978) bioassay of 2,3,7,8-TCDD: implications for risk assessment. J Toxicol Environ Health 1991; 34:279-96.
- Michaud JM, Huntley SL, Sherer RA, Gray MN, Paustenbach DJ. PCB and dioxin re-entry criteria for building surfaces and air. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 1994; 4:197-227.
- Newton M, Norris LA. Potential exposure of humans to 2,4,5-T and TCDD in the Oregon coast ranges. Fundam Appl Toxicol 1981; 1:339-46.
- Weber LW, Zesch A, Rozman K. Penetration, distribution and kinetics of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in human skin in vitro. Arch Toxicol 1991; 65:421-8.
- Young AL, Giesy JP, Jones PD, Newton M. Environmental fate and bioavailability of Agent Orange and its associated dioxin during the Vietnam War. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2004;11:359-70.
Risk assessment reports
- Doull J. Acceptable levels of dioxin contamination in an office building following transformer fire. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1988.
- Kim NK, Hawley J. Risk assessment: Binghamton State Office Building. Albany, NY: New York State Department of Health, 1982.
- University of California [Davis]. Department of Environmental Toxicology. Risk Science Program (RSP). Intermedia transfer factors for contaminants found at hazardous waste sites: 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). (118 KB, PDF) Sacramento, CA: Department of Toxic Substances Control, 1994.
- United States Air Force (USAF) School of Aerospace Medicine. Consultative Letter, AFRL-SA-WP-CL-2012-0052, UC-123 Agent Orange Exposure Assessment, Post-Vietnam (1972-1982). (2.3 MB, PDF) Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio: Air Force Research Laboratory, Department of the Air Force, April 27, 2012.
Summaries of TCDD
- 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) - US Environmental Protection Agency, Air Toxics Website
- Chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and chlorinated dibenzofurans chronic toxicity summary (46 KB, PDF) - California Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment
- Intermedia transfer factors for contaminants found at hazardous waste sites: 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) (118 KB, PDF) - California Department of Toxic Substances Control; Risk Science Program, University of California, Davis