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Health Outcomes of Women’s Vietnam War Service

The HealthViEWS: Health of Vietnam Era Veteran Women's Study (2011-2012) (also called the Cooperative Studies Program (CSP) No. 579) was the most comprehensive study to date of the mental and physical health of women Vietnam War Veterans.


This study estimated the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), other mental and physical health conditions, and disability in women Vietnam War Veterans. It also examined the relationship between PTSD and other conditions and the Vietnam deployment experience. Data collection is complete but analyses are still ongoing. The study will be used to shape future research on women Veterans and to plan for appropriate services for women Veterans and the aging Veteran population. Learn more about this study.   


This was a study of approximately 10,000 women who served in the U.S. military during the Vietnam War, including those who served in Vietnam, those who served in countries near Vietnam, and those who served primarily in the United States.


Cohort development, mail survey and telephone interview administration, and medical record abstraction are complete. Data analysis is ongoing. The study is being coordinated by VA's Cooperative Studies Program and involves researchers from across the country.


Susan Frayne, M.D., M.P.H.
Yasmin Cypel, Ph.D., M.S.
Joan Furey, R.N., M.A.
Amy Kilbourne, Ph.D.
Rachel Kimerling, Ph.D.
Kathryn Magruder, M.P.H., Ph.D.
Matthew Reinhard, Psy.D.
Karen Schumacher, R.N.
Tracey Serpi, Ph.D.
Avron Spiro III, Ph.D.

Study publications

Smith BN, Spiro A, Frayne SM, Kimerling R, Cypel Y, Reinhard MJ, Kilbourne AM, Magruder KM. Impact of Wartime Stress Exposures and Mental Health on Later-Life Functioning and Disability in Vietnam-Era Women Veterans: Findings from The Health of Vietnam-Era Women's Study (HealthViEWS). Psychosom Med. 2019.

Schmidt EM, Magruder K, Kilbourne AM, Stock EM, Cypel Y, El Burai Félix S, Serpi T, Kimerling R, Cohen B, Spiro A, Furey J, Huang GD, Frayne SM. Four Decades after War: Incident Diabetes among Women Vietnam-Era Veterans in the HealthViEWS Study. Womens Health Issues. 2019: 29: 471-479.

Kilbourne AM, Schumacher K, Frayne SM, Cypel Y, Barbaresso MM, Nord KM, Perzhinsky J, Lai Z, Prenovost K, Spiro A, Gleason TC, Kimerling R, Huang GD, Serpi TB, Magruder KM. Physical health conditions among a population-based cohort of Vietnam-era women Veterans: Agreement between self-report and medical records. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2017; 26: 1244-1251.

Sternke LM, Serpi T, Spiro A 3rd, Kimerling R, Kilbourne AM, Cypel Y, Frayne SM, Furey J, Huang GD, Reinhard MJ, Magruder K. Assessment of a Revised Wartime Experiences Scale for Vietnam-Era Women: The Health of Vietnam-Era Women's Study (HealthViEWS). Womens Health Issues 2017; 27: 471-477.

Magruder K, Serpi T, Kimerling R, Kilbourne, AM, Collins JF, Cypel Y, Frayne SM, Furey J, Huang GD, Gleason T, Reinhard MJ, Spiro A, Kang H. Prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder in Vietnam-era women Veterans: The Health of Vietnam-Era Women's Study (HealthVIEWS). JAMA Psychiatry 2015; 72: 1127-1134.

Kimerling R, Serpi T, Weathers F, Kilbourne AM, Kang H, Collins JF, Cypel Y, Frayne SM, Furey J, Huang GD, Reinhard MJ, Spiro A, Magruder K. Diagnostic accuracy of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0) PTSD module among female Vietnam-era Veterans. J Trauma Stress 2014; 27: 160-167.

Kang HK, Cypel Y, Kilbourne AM, Magruder KM, Serpi T, Collins JF, Frayne SM, Furey J, Huang GD, Kimerling R, Reinhard MJ, Schumacher K, Spiro A 3rd. HealthViEWS: Mortality study of female U.S. Vietnam era Veterans, 1965-2010 .Am J Epidemiol 2014; 179: 721-730.

Related publications

Cypel Y, Kang H. Mortality patterns among women Vietnam-era Veterans: Results of a retrospective cohort study. Ann Epidemiol 2008;18:244-252.

Kang HK, Mahan CM, Lee KY, Magee CA, Mather SH, Matanoski G. Pregnancy outcomes among U.S. women Vietnam Veterans. Am J Ind Med 2000;38:447–454.

Kang HK, Mahan CM, Lee KY, Magee CA, Selvin S. Prevalence of gynecologic cancers among female Vietnam Veterans. J Occup Environ Med 2000;42:1121–1127.

Dalager NA, Kang HK, Thomas TL. Cancer mortality patterns among women who served in the military: The Vietnam experience.  J Occup Environ Med 1995;37:298–305.

Thomas TL, Kang HK, Dalager NA. Mortality among women Vietnam Veterans, 1973–1987. Am J Epidemiol 1991;134:973–980.